Define Custom Callbacks for ActiveRecord and More

Rails ActiveRecord models have a lifecycle that developers are allowed to hook into. But while most of us know about before_save and after_update, there are a few lesser unknown callbacks that are good to know about before you reinvent them. In this post, I’ll cover all of the available ActiveRecord lifecycle callbacks, and also show how you can define custom callbacks for normal ruby objects.

Meet the Callbacks

The Rails guide for ActiveRecord Validations and Callbacks is a good starting point for an introduction of the available callbacks and what they do. Most developers will be familiar with the validation and persistence callbacks, so let’s start with these

:before_validation, :after_validation :before_save, :after_save :before_create, :after_create :before_update, :after_update :before_destroy, :after_destroy 

The callbacks above are self explanatory and commonly used, but if you’re unfamiliar with them, or need a refresher, check out the Rails guide on the topic.

Around Callbacks

For save, create, update, and destroy, Rails also gives extra helper methods for defining both a before and after save callback at the same time.

For example, suppose you wanted to trigger your own custom callback while a model was being destroyed. You can do so by defining and triggering your own callback as follows:

class SomeModel < ActiveRecord::Base   define_callbacks :custom_callback    around_destroy :around_callback    def around_callback     run_callbacks :custom_callback do       yield  # runs the actual destroy here     end   end end 

Custom Callbacks without ActiveRecord

Most of the time, your Rails models will be using ActiveModel, but sometimes it makes sense to use a plain old ruby object. Wouldn’t it be nice if we could define callbacks in the same way? Fortunately, the callback system is neatly abstracted into ActiveSupport::Callbacks so it’s easy to mix into any ruby class.

# Look Ma, I'm just a normal ruby class! class Group   include ActiveSupport::Callbacks   define_callbacks :user_added    def initialize(opts = {})     @users = []   end    # Whenever we add a new user to our array, we wrap the code   # with `run_callbacks`. This will run any defined callbacks   # in order.   def add_user(u)     run_callbacks :user_added do       @users << u     end   end end 

For a fully documented and runnable example, check out this github project. It’ll also give some extra explanation about call order and inheritance.

Other Useful Callbacks

  • :after_initialize is called right after an object has been unmarshalled from the database. This allows you to do any other custom initialization you want. Instead of defining an initialize method on a model, use this instead.
  • :after_find hasn’t been useful in my experience. I haven’t run into a case where I wanted to manipulate documents after a find action. It could potentially be useful for metrics and profiling.
  • :after_touch. ActiveRecord allows you to touch a record or its association to refresh its updated_at attribute. I’ve found this callback useful to triggering notifications to users after a model has been marked as updated, but not actually changed.
  • :after_commit is an interesting and tricky callback. Whenever ActiveRecord wants to make a change to a record (create, update, destroy), it wraps it around a transaction. after_commit is called after you’re positive that something has been written out to the database. Because it is also called for destroys, it makes sense to scope the callback if you intend to use it only for saves. Be warned that after_commit can be tricky to use if you’re using nested transactions. That’ll probably be the topic of another post though.
# call for creates, updates, and deletes after_commit :all_callback  # call for creates and updates after_commit :my_callback, :if => :persisted? 
  • :after_rollback is the complement to after_commit. I haven’t used it yet, but I can see it as being useful for doing manual cleanup after a failed transaction.

Go Forth and Callback!

While many of our models will be backed with ActiveRecord, or some ActiveModel compatitible datastore, it’s nice to see how easy it is to follow a similar pattern in normal ruby without having to depend on Rails.